How to Identify Old Sterling Silver Marks

By Keely Brown
Antique sterling silver pieces, historic figures, events
Hemera Technologies/ Images

To novice collectors, the world of antique sterling silver may seem to have a language of its own. If a piece is genuine sterling, it will be marked with a series of letters, numbers and symbols — all of which have their origins in a marking system created in the 14th century. By turning the piece over and looking for these numbers and symbols, you can identify whether or not a piece is sterling silver, who made it, and when and where it was made. While these symbols may seem confusing, anyone with an interest in old silver can learn to decipher them.

Identifying sterling silver hallmarks

Step 1

This antique sterling candelabra
Stockbyte/Stockbyte/Getty Images

Look for the standard of purity mark, known as the "assayer's mark." In sterling silver, the ratio of pure silver to other binding metals is 925 parts to 1,000, so sterling from America and Great Britain is usually marked “925." Before 1831, British sterling was also marked with the "lion passant guardant" — a lion walking towards the left but turned full face. Since 1831, this stamp has shown the lion’s face in profile.

Step 2

This ornate silver goblet, a christening, wedding gift Images

Look for an alphabetical letter which will identify the date of manufacture. In sterling from Great Britain, different fonts, letter sizes and backgrounds will correspond to the date an item was made.

Step 3

Antique sterling, design
Stockbyte/Stockbyte/Getty Images

Look for a maker's mark and a city mark. The maker's mark may consist of an initial, or an entire name spelled out. Pieces from Great Britain are also marked with a symbol indicating the city of manufacture; for instance, an anchor represents Birmingham, and a castle represents Edinburgh.

Step 4

tarnished silver, polishes, the surface
Hemera Technologies/ Images

Determine if the piece was made in America. American silversmiths did not use the British system, but many of the more prominent silver manufacturers developed their own system of marks. Today's collectors sometimes need to employ other methods, such as studying old catalogs, in order to date vintage pieces by American companies such as Tiffany and Gorham.

Step 5

Reference books, collectors, the origins, vintage sterling pieces
Stockbyte/Stockbyte/Getty Images

Look for books and Internet resources with photos identifying hallmarks. Seeing drawings and photographs of various hallmark stamps is a sure way to train your eye to recognize these marks when you see them. Books such as "The Encyclopedia of American Silver Manufacturers" by Dorothy Rainwater are invaluable in identifying hallmarks and makers.

About the Author

Keely Brown has been a feature writer, arts critic, columnist and business writer since 1998. She has written for publications such as the "Atlanta Journal-Constitution," "Creative Loafing" and "Boulder County Business Report." Brown won a Colorado Press Association Award for journalism and a Best of Atlanta award for her radio program. She has been profiled on CNN and National Public Radio.