Different Surgical Instruments & Their Uses

By John Peterson
Different Surgical Instruments, Their Uses
Image by Flickr.com, courtesy of Jurek Durczak

Collecting medical artifacts is fascinating, and antique surgical instruments are among the most interesting. Experienced collectors are very knowledgeable about the uses and types of surgical instruments, and novice collectors need to be familiar with basic instruments.

Bleeding Instruments

Until well into the 19th century, there were three basic medical practices: bloodletting, purging and sweating. Bloodletting, the most common, required surgical instruments such as lancets to cut arteries and veins (usually on the inside of the elbow) and bleeding bowls to measure the amount of released blood.

Scalpels

Scalpels are simply knives for making incisions. A common scalpel is straight with a convex blade, and a bistoury scalpel is concave to prevent accidental piercing.

Retractors

Retractors are hooked instruments used to open incisions or to lift blood vessels.

Dental Tools

Infection from cavities or other dental problems were often fatal. For this reason, extraction was the common method used to deal with problem teeth. A tooth key was used to pull molars and dental forceps for the other teeth.

Bone Saws

The most brutal instruments were the various bone saws used in amputations.

Minor Surgical Sets

Every early doctor had a pocket or minor surgical set that contained scalpels, lancets, retractors, scissors, probes and needles and silk for stitching wounds and incisions.

About the Author

John Peterson published his first article in 1992. Having written extensively on North American archaeology and material culture, he has contributed to various archaeological journals and publications. Peterson has a Bachelor of Arts from Eastern New Mexico University and a Master of Arts from the University of Nebraska, both in anthropology, as well as a Bachelor of Arts in history from Columbia College.